Criminal Justice System
The United States has the largest prison population of any developed country in the world. A disproportionate number of people in the nation’s prisons and jails are low-income, undereducated, low-level, nonviolent people of color with drug convictions. Our system of mass incarceration is due almost entirely to the War on Drugs and its disproportionate focus on low-income, people of color. The system must be reformed so that it is no longer racially and ethnically discriminatory and incorporates more alternatives to incarceration.
September 30, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
The Rights Working Group recently launched a campaign, "Face the Truth," to eliminate racial and religious profiling.
Profiling is the exclusive reliance on racial, religious, or ethnic characteristics to determine the likelihood that a person committed an act or crime. While profiling is most associated with African Americans, profiling targets people of many races, religions, and ethnicities, such as Arab and Muslim Americans following the September 11 terrorist attacks, Latinos in immigration enforcement, and the Asian Americans following World War II.
The "Face the Truth" campaign's goals include: urging the Department of Justice to revise guidelines regarding profiling loopholes in national security and enforcement, ending immigration enforcement programs that often profile based on race, and pushing Congress to pass the End Racial Profiling Act (ERPA). ERPA would prohibit all law enforcement agencies from racial profiling, require agencies to collect data on the number of stops, searches, and arrests by race and gender, and allow victims of racial profiling to sue local, state or federal authorities. Congress is expected to introduce ERPA later this session.
The campaign will also emphasize the ineffective and illegal nature of profiling, promote communication amongst targeted communities to better fight profiling, and building stronger relationships between law enforcement and their communities.
August 19, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
As states continue to cut funding for mental health programs, mentally ill youth are increasingly held in juvenile detention rather than receiving the medical care they need.
Currently, about two-thirds of inmates in juvenile detention centers across the country have a diagnosed mental illness. Juvenile detention centers often fail, or are ill-equipped, to provide mentally ill youth with the help they could get from mental health facilities.
At least 32 states have cut community mental health programs this year and plan to double reductions by 2010. Ohio has reduced funding for community-based mental health services by 34 percent. California's recent budget cuts entail cutting $92 million in funding for mental health services and reducing funding for community clinics by as much as 30 percent.
State cuts to mental health services exacerbate an already tough situation for many mentally ill youth seeking care. According to a 2006 study, for every 100,000 youths there are fewer than nine child psychiatrists.
August 17, 2009 - Posted by Tyler Lewis
The U.S. Supreme Court ordered a federal court to hear new evidence in the case against Georgia death row inmate Troy Davis.
In 1991, Davis was found guilty of the murder of an off-duty police officer in Savannah, Ga., based solely on eyewitness testimony. Since then, seven of the nine non-police officer witnesses have taken back their testimony against Davis. Many of the witnesses claim to have been pressured into providing damaging testimony against Davis by police officers eager for a conviction.
His case has drawn international criticism from the NAACP, members of Congress, and world leaders, including the European Parliament, Desmond Tutu, and Pope Benedict.
The Court granted Davis a stay of execution on September 23, 2008, but refused to hear the case requesting a new trial at that time.
July 30, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
Yesterday, the House Judiciary Committee passed 16-9 the Fairness in Cocaine Sentencing Act, introduced by Rep. Bobby Scott, D. Va., which will eliminate the disparity between federal crack cocaine and powder cocaine sentencing.
Under current law, a person convicted of possessing five grams of crack receives a mandatory minimum sentence of five years in prison. To receive the same sentence for powder cocaine, a person would have to possess 500 grams of powder – 100 times the amount of crack – even though both drugs are pharmacologically the same.
Both the Supreme Court and the U.S. Sentencing Commission have recognized the unfairness in this disparity and have acted to reduce it. Only Congress is able to eliminate the disparity.
The Act sets the sentencing trigger at 500 grams for both types of cocaine. In addition, it eliminates the mandatory minimum sentence of five years for simple possession of crack cocaine.
The Senate is expected to introduce bipartisan legislation to eliminate the disparity in cocaine sentencing soon.
July 23, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
In an column in today's issue of Politico, Wade Henderson, president and CEO of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, urged Congress to equalize the federal sentences for crack cocaine and powder cocaine.
"Most Americans want to enforce tough laws against big-time drug dealers, and rightly so. But discriminatory laws do nothing to protect young people against dangerous drugs, diminish respect for the legal system and exacerbate the racial and economic inequalities that are fraying our social fabric," said Henderson.
Under current law, people convicted of possessing five grams of crack, the size of two sugar packets, will receive a mandatory minimum sentence of five years in prison. To get the same penalty for powder cocaine, a person would have to possess 500 grams of powder -100 times the amount of crack - despite the fact that the drugs are pharmacologically the same. More than 80 percent of the defendants in federal crack prosecutions are African American, and the law has convicted more low-level offenders than the so-called drug kingpins it was designed to capture.
Yesterday, a House subcommittee unanimously approved a bill (H.R. 3245) sponsored by Rep. Bobby Scott, D. Va., that will equalize the federal sentences for crack and cocaine by requiring at least 500 grams of either kind of cocaine to trigger the mandatory minimum sentence of five years of prison time. A companion bill with bipartisan support is expected to be introduced soon in the Senate.
July 10, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
"I Am Troy Davis," in which supporters hold a picture of Davis in front of their face to symbolize the criminal justice system's disparate treatment of Black men. October 26, 2008, in Atlanta, Ga. Photo Credit: World Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
Last week, the U.S. Supreme Court delayed deciding if it would hear a case that could grant Troy Davis a new trial until the Court reconvenes in the fall.
Davis is a Georgia death row inmate who has insisted since his 1991 trial that he is innocent of the murder of police officer. His case has drawn international criticism from world leaders, including the European Parliament, Desmond Tutu, and Pope Benedict, who point to new evidence suggesting that Troy Davis could be innocent.
The Supreme Court granted Davis a stay of execution on September 23, 2008, but refused to hear the case requesting a new trial. The Court referred the case back to a lower Georgia court, which refused Davis a retrial but granted a 30-day stay of execution to permit Davis' lawyers time to petition the Supreme Court again. The Supreme Court's delay will likely keep the state of Georgia from setting a date for execution.
"The execution of a likely innocent man must not proceed, and we are thankful the Court has put the brakes on Troy's execution," said Benjamin T. Jealous, president and CEO of the NAACP.
July 9, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
Many Americans trust local and state law enforcement to protect them. However, when police departments abuse that trust, the F.B.I and the U.S. Department of Justice have the authority to recommend reforms and then monitor the department's progress.
Police mistreatment of citizens is classified as "color of law" abuse, meaning the use of authority granted by a local, state, or federal agency to infringe on constitutional rights. "Color of law" offenses include unlawful detainment and questioning of suspects, search and seizure of property, bringing of criminal charges, sexual assault, and the use of excessive force.
In 1991, Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers brutally beat Rodney King, an African-American suspect, but were acquitted of charges of excessive force. This case prompted a series of federal investigations that revealed significant misconduct in the LAPD and in other police departments throughout the nation. With an increasing awareness of police misconduct, Congress included a provision in the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 that authorizes the Department of Justice to file civil lawsuits against law enforcement agencies that engage in a pattern of violating people's rights and obtain a court order to monitor and reform them.
July 7, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
Rep. John Conyers, D. Mich., speaking at the June 2001 introduction of the End Racial Profiling Act. The bill has been introduced in previous Congresses, but hasn't passed. ERPA has not yet been introduced in this Congress.
A new report jointly authored by the Rights Working Group and the American Civil Liberties Union found that racial profiling by law enforcement agencies still persists on our nation's roadways, in airports, and near our border and urges Congress to pass the End Racial Profiling Act (ERPA).
ERPA would prohibit all law enforcement agencies from racial profiling, require agencies to collect data on the number of stops, searches, and arrests by race and gender, and allow victims of racial profiling to sue local, state or federal authorities.
"The U.S. government must take urgent, direct action to rid the nation of the scourge of racial and ethnic profiling and bring this country into conformity with both the Constitution and international human rights obligations," said Chandra Bhatnagar, staff attorney with the ACLU Human Rights Program.
The report cited several studies in 22 states showing that African-American and Latino drivers are more than twice as likely to be stopped, searched, or arrested by law enforcement officers as White drivers. Racial and ethnic profiling has contributed to the overrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities in the American criminal justice system, the report states.
The report also assessed federal programs, including Department of Homeland Security counterterrorism efforts, and found a rise in racial profiling of immigrants and foreign nationals from Muslim-majority countries.
The report was submitted last week to a human rights body at the U.N. that monitors compliance with International Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
June 25, 2009 - Posted by Tyler Lewis
The Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) is calling for the Senate to lift restrictions that make it harder for the Legal Services Corporation (LSC) to provide legal services to low-income people.
The LSC is a non-profit corporation created by Congress in 1974 to ensure equal access to justice for millions of Americans who need but cannot pay for a lawyer. The LSC is primarily funded by Congress and gives grants to free legal aid organizations around the country that help low-income Americans with legal matters.
In a letter to the Senate Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies, LCCR said: "In these times of economic distress, when more and more people require help in battling foreclosure and eviction, securing unemployment and benefits, and dealing with medical and insurance matters, the Senate must assist those most vulnerable by funding the LSC sufficiently and by lifting no-cost restrictions."
Since the 1990s, the LSC has suffered budget cuts and a number of restrictions – including those preventing legal aid lawyers from collecting attorneys' fees and LSC clients from joining class action lawsuits – which have forced it to turn away nearly a million cases a year. The House passed a budget recently that included significant increases in funding and removed the restriction on the collection of attorneys' fees, but left in place many of the other restrictions. The Senate is expected to consider the funding bill for the LSC this week.
June 3, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
Troy Davis' sister Martina Correia speaks at Action Day for Troy Davis on October 26, 2008, in Atlanta, Ga. Photo Credit: World Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
Congressional leaders and civil rights groups are calling for intervention in the case of Troy Davis, who currently sits on death row in Georgia for a murder he may not have committed.
On May 22, 24 members of Congress sent a letter to Eric Holder, the U.S. attorney general, requesting federal action on Davis' behalf. Other groups such as Amnesty International and the NAACP have launched petitions that will be submitted to Georgia Gov. Sonny Perdue, as well as other government officials, demanding justice.
In 1991, Troy Davis was found guilty of the murder of an off-duty police officer in Savannah, Ga., based solely on witness testimony. Since then, seven of the nine non-police officer witnesses have taken back their testimony against Davis. Many of the witnesses claim to have been pressured into providing damaging testimony against Davis by police officers eager for a conviction.
In light of this new evidence, many people think that Davis deserves a new trial.
Despite the withdrawn testimonies and the absence of physical evidence to tie Davis to the crime, the courts have continuously denied his petitions for a new trial. On April 16, the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals denied Davis a hearing to present new evidence, writing, "Davis has not presented us with a showing of innocence so compelling that we would be obligated to act today."
Troy Davis is now petitioning the Supreme Court to send his case back to a federal district court to hear new evidence supporting his innocence. The petition says that going forward with Davis' execution without a "full and fair hearing in which he could make a truly persuasive demonstration that he is actually innocent" would be unconstitutional.
Current law makes it difficult for a death row inmate to appeal his or her case to the higher courts. This has spurred civil rights leaders to appeal for government intervention. "An innocent man may be executed." says Ben Jealous, president of the NAACP, in a statement to the public. "You and I must work together to reform our country's criminal justice system, and we must start by saving the life of one man."
More Information On
Social Justice Brief: A Social Work Perspective on Drug Policy Reform - National Association of Social Workers
Reclaiming Our Rights: Reflections on Racial Profiling in a Post-9/11 America - Rights Working Group (2011)
The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs - The Sentencing Project
A 25-Year Quagmire: The War on Drugs and Its Impact on American Society - The Sentencing Project
Critical Condition: African American Youth in the Justice System (pdf) - Campaign for Youth Justice
Latest on criminal justice from Unfinished Business.
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