20. Anti-Defamation League, Beyond the Bombing: the Militia Menace Grows, (1995).
21. For O'Toole quote, see Kenneth S. Stern, A Force Upon the Plain: This book offers an outstanding report on the militia movements.
22. U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Violence Against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey 3,4 (1995).
23. For a summary of Professor Lincoln's account of the history of violence against black churches, see "Burning Hate" by Salim Muwakkil, In These Times, July 8, 1996, page 15.
24. Statement of Deval Patrick, Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice, before the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. House of Representatives, Concerning Church Fires in the Southeast, May 21, 1996.
25. For an account of the history of attacks on St. John Baptist Church, see "Old Fears and New Hope: Tale of Burned Black Church Goes Far Beyond Arson," By Fox Butterfield, The New York Times, July 21, 1996, page 12.
26. For an account of this incident, see "Skinheads Get Prison for Bombings Plot" by Jim Newton, Los Angeles Times, January 14, 1994, page B1.
27. See "The Great Church-Fire Hoax," The New York Post, July 29, 1996, page 20. Also, "A Church Arson Epidemic? It's Smoke and Mirrors," By Michael Fumiento, The Wall Street Journal, July 8, 1996, [page to come]
28. For comparative statistics on white and black churches, see "Why Are Churches Burning?" By Gary Fields and Richard Price, USA Today, June 28-30, 1996, pages 1A and 2A.
30. See, "Three White Soldiers Held in Slaying of Black Couple," by William Branigin and Dana Priest, Washington Post, Dec. 9, 1995, p. A1.
31. For accounts of racial harassment against Bridget Ward and her family, see: "Victim of Racist Graffiti Unbowed," By Suzette Parmley, Philadelphia Inquirer, April 1, 1996, page B5; "Racism is a Plague that Won't Go Away," By Claude Lewis, Philadelphia Inquirer, April 3, 1996, page A19; "Bridesburg Residents Reflect on Racist Welcome," By Murray Dubin, Philadelphia Inquirer, April 3, 1996, page B9; "Leaving Bridesburg and You Can Have It," By Lea Sitton, Philadelphia Inquirer, May 3, 1996, page A1.
32. For an account of this incident, see "Increase in Hate Crime Reports Has Fairfax on Guard," The Washington Post, July 14, 1994, page 4 of Virginia Metro Section.
33. L.A. County Commission on Human Relations, Hate Crimes in Los Angeles County in 1995, A Report to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors (1995), p. 32 (hereafter cited as Hate Crimes in Los Angeles County).
34. Klanwatch Intelligence Report, p. 16.
37. For statistics on anti-semitic incidents, see ADL Audit (1995), page 1 and throughout.
38. Ibid., p. 12
39. American Jewish Committee, Crown Heights, A Case Study in Anti- Semitism and Community Relations, New York, N.Y. (1991).
40. ADL Audit (1995), p. 14
41. See, "From a Quiet Beginning, a Volatile Brew Explodes in Harlem," by N.R. Kleinfield, New York Times, pp. 49, 51.
42. Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, Hate Crime in Los Angeles County in 1995.
43. See, "Proposition 187 Fans the Flames of Intolerance" by Thomas D. Elias, Houston Chronicle, Dec. 11, 1994.
44. U.S v. Adams & Page (D. Maine, 1995)
45. Coalition for Human Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles, Hate Unleashed: Los Angeles in the Aftermath of 187, November 1995, p. 13.
46. Southern Poverty Law Center, Intelligence Report, August 1994, page 1; "Mexican Laborers Beaten in Attack on Alpine Camp," Los Angeles Times, October 3, 1992, page 1.
47. See "California Deputies Taped in Beating," Washington Post, April 3, 1996."
49. For statistics on violence against Asian Pacific Americans, see Audit of Violence Against Asian Pacific Americans, 1995, Third Annual Report of the National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium, Washington, D.C., June, 1996, page 1 and throughout. This report offers an excellent history of Asian Pacific Americans and of bigotry and violence against them.
50. Ibid., p. 9.
51. Ibid., p. 8.
52. Ibid., p. 31.
53. Ibid., p.32.
54. Ibid., p. 8.
55. For an analysis of bigotry against Arab-Americans, see 1995 Report on Anti-Arab Racism: Hate Crimes, Discrimination, and Defamation of Arab- Americans, American-Arab Anti Discrimination Committee, Washington, D.C., 1996.
56. Ibid., p. 2-3. It is important to note that not all Arabs are Muslims and not all Muslims are Arabs. 57. Ibid.
58. Ibid., p. 5.
59. Ibid., p. 7.
60. Council on American-Islamic Relations, A Rush To Judgment, The CAIR Report on Anti-Muslim Stereotyping, Harassment and Hate Crimes Following the Bombing of Oklahoma's Murrah Federal Building, April 19, 1995, p. 9.
61. For statistics on hate crimes against lesbians and gays, see Anti-Lesbian and Gay Violence in 1995, National Coalition of Anti- Violence Programs and Gay Men and Lesbians Opposing Violence, 1996, page 1 and throughout.
62. Ibid., page 2.
63. Ibid., page 3.
64. Ibid., Appendix B-1-2.
65. Ibid., Appendix B-1-4.
67. Women and Violence: Hearing Before the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 101st Congress, 2nd Session 62 (1990) (Statement of Helen R. Neuborne, Executive Director, NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund).
68.P.L. 101-275 (1990); The Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act includes gender-based crimes.
69. See e.g. 42 USC sec. 245; The Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act includes gender- based crimes.
70. CWPS Study; Northwest WLC Study.
71. CWPS Study at 9; Northwest WLC Study at 10. The FBI uses these types of criteria to determine whether a crime was bias motivated. See, e.g. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Hate Crime Data Collection Guidelines, pp. 2-3.
72. See Jenny Rivera, The Civil Rights Remedy of the Violence Against Women Act: Legislative History, Policy Implications and Litigation Strategy, 4 Brooklyn Law Journal 409, 412 (1996).
73. National Crime Victims Treatment Center, Rape in America 2 (1992).
74. U.S. Department of Justice Statistics, Violence Against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey 3,4 (1995).
75. For figures from Arkansas, see CWPS Study, page 10.
76. Massachusetts v. Aboulaz, No. 940984H (Mass. Sup. Ct. Mar. 14, 1996).
78. Suzanne Pharr, "Hate Violence Against Women: A Long Killing Season," Violence Against Women (National Network of Women's Funds, Spring 1991).
79. Pub. L. No. 103-322, Title IV, codified at 42 U.S.C. 13701 et seq (1996).
80. 42 U.S.C. 13981 (1996)
81. ADL Report 1994
82. For survey on local prejudice reduction programs, see Combating Hate Crimes in America's Cities: 1995, Anti-Defamation League, March, 1996, pages 6-12.
83. For effort by the Leadership Conference Education Fund, see Statement of Karen McGill Lawson, Executive Director, Leadership Conference Education Fund, On Programs to Promote Tolerance and Understanding and Prevent Hate Crimes, Before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, March 19, 1996.
84. For an account of efforts to rebuild churches and improve intergroup relations, see "Goal Isn't Just to Rebuild But to Fight Hatred" by Richard Price and Gary Fields, USA Today, August 7, 1996, page 1A.
85. For report on the National Council of Churches, see "Goal Isn't Just to Rebuild, But to Fight Hatred," By Richard Price and Gary Fields, USA Today, August 7, 1996, page 2A.
86. Center for Democratic Renewal, Black Church Burnings in the South: Six Month Preliminary Investigation, June 10, 1996.