Civil Rights History
Historical events, political acts and policy decisions provide the context for the contemporary civil rights debate.
August 28, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
Though the Civil Rights Movement was a non-violent movement, African Americans' struggle for civil rights was frequently violent. Knowing this, Congress put a provision into the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to create a body within the Department of Justice to be a "peacemaker" when community tensions arise based on race, color, or national origin.
The Community Relations Service (CRS) provides aid to state and local governments and public and private organizations that are in preventing and resolving racial and ethnic tensions. By providing independent conciliation services free of charge, CRS serves as an impartial mediator, facilitating racial harmony among communities of all sizes as well as the government. In order to protect the integrity of the service and the engaged parties, the Act mandated that CRS' work be confidential and without publicity.
CRS played a critical role over the last 45 years in helping to make desegregation efforts run more smoothly in communities across the country. Since its establishment, CRS has worked on a wide range of cases across the country, from school desegregation and urban riots, to tensions between local college students and community law enforcement. In 2008, following the Jena 6 incident, CRS created a "Noose Incident Response Team" to better monitor community tensions around these incidents.
August 27, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
President and CEO of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Wade Henderson released the following statement on the passing of Senator Edward M. Kennedy:
"Senator Edward M. Kennedy was the field general in the fight for civil rights. An eloquent advocate, a skilled strategist, and an unequaled coalition-builder, Edward M. Kennedy was the most effective senator of his generation and a leader in achieving every major legislative advance during his service in the Senate. From the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, the cause of civil and human rights had no better friend than Senator Edward M. Kennedy.
As we struggle to enact the health care reform that was his life's work and will be his greatest legacy, we can hear him reminding us that "the work continues" and "the dream lives on." His words and his passion will continue to inspire millions to fulfill this dream.
On this sad day, our hearts and thoughts are also with the Kennedy family in their time of loss. We thank them for their support of Senator Kennedy and his life-long contribution to civil and human rights. We deeply appreciate their contribution."
August 26, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
Today marks the 89th anniversary of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Ratified in 1920, the amendment gave women the right to vote. Women had been gaining suffrage, or the right to vote, on a state-by-state basis throughout the early 20th century, but the amendment granted all U.S. women full voting rights.
The amendment's ratification was the culmination of the Women's Suffrage Movement. Women's suffrage was first proposed in 1848 by participants of the Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention, which included Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott.
The movement picked up steam when Alice Paul, president of the National Women's Party, lead eight thousand women in picketing the White House the day before Woodrow Wilson's inauguration in 1913. Women's active participation in the war effort during World War I also helped the movement gain support.
August 14, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
President Franklin Roosevelt, center, signs Social Security Act of 1935 in the Cabinet Room of the White House. Photo Credit: Library of Congress
On August 14, 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act into law, providing benefits for the elderly, women and children who had lost their family incomes, people with disabilities, and unemployed people. The Act was part of his New Deal, a broad plan to reform American society and relieve the hardships of the Great Depression.
During the Great Depression, the unemployment rate skyrocketed and the banking system collapsed, leaving many people with no means of support. In 1933, 25 percent of all American workers were unemployed, up from three percent in 1929, and over 40 percent of banks in the United States closed.
As banks failed, people's life savings were lost. From 1930 to 1933, nine million savings accounts were completely wiped out and approximately 1.3 billion dollars -- about 16.8 billion in today's dollars -- were lost.
August 10, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled that state laws establishing separate public schools for White and Black students were unconstitutional, leading to the integration of classrooms, sports teams, school clubs, and even after-school dances. Sadly, more than 50 years later, some communities continue to hold segregated proms for White and minority public school students.
In the documentary "Prom Night in Mississippi", director Paul Saltzman uses interviews and video diaries to show Charleston High School students' experiences with race, and their excitement about attending their first integrated prom – in 2008.
"Prom Night in Mississippi" first aired on July 20 on HBO, and will continue to be featured during HBO's Documentary Film Series this summer.
August 6, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
In the early 1960s, television images of police attacking civil rights marchers shocked the nation and spurred the passage of sweeping civil rights legislation. On March 7, 1965, police in Alabama used tear gas and billy clubs to attack over 500 civil rights activists who marched from Selma to Montgomery to dramatize the call for voting rights for African Americans. The images of police brutality were broadcast worldwide.
One week later, President Johnson responded by calling on Congress to pass a voting rights bill. When he signed the VRA five months later, he remarked that it was to be "one of the most monumental laws in the entire history of American freedom."
The VRA is considered the most successful civil rights law Congress has ever passed and remains as important now as it was four decades ago. Since 1965, Congress has voted four times to renew all three of its temporary provisions, most recently in 2006, when both the House and the Senate approved the measure overwhelmingly in a bipartisan manner. Congress conducted over 20 hearings, heard from over 50 expert witnesses, and collected over 17,000 pages of testimony documenting the continued need for and constitutionality of the VRA.
July 31, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
On August 2, 1790, U.S. judicial marshals and their assistants began the first United States census, eventually tallying the entire population of the United States at 3.9 million, less than 13 percent of the current U.S. population.
The first census was scheduled to take only nine months and was executed by 17 judicial marshals assisted by only 650 field workers. The entire survey cost only $44,377 (more than $3.4 billion in today's dollars) and results were submitted directly to President George Washington for immediate publication.
While the only information required by the Constitution was the overall number of persons, the first census asked for the name of the head of the household and the number of people in the household. People were placed in one of five categories:
July 22, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
Tonight CNN will air its second primetime investigative report on the current state of Black Americans with its documentary "Black in America 2." The special airs in two parts tonight and tomorrow night on CNN at 8:00 p.m. ET. The first "Black in America" aired last summer.
The documentary will be hosted by award-winning journalist Soledad O'Brien – who was honored by LCCR for her work covering Hurricane Katrina. It will shine a light on Black Americans who are developing solutions to problems that plague Black communities like Dr. Lisa Newman, a surgeon at the University of Michigan, who is studying the role African ancestry might play in a certain kind of highly aggressive breast cancer, and Steve Perry, an Hartford, Conn., teacher who founded a magnet school that sends every single one of its graduates to college.
July 17, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
Bill Clinton and Nelson Mandela at Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pa., July 4, 1993.
July 2, 2009 - Posted by The Leadership Conference
President Lyndon Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act surrounded by civil rights leaders, including the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. July 2, 1964.
Forty-five years ago today, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlaws discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, and sex in public accommodations, employment, and federally funded programs.
It also established a framework within the federal government for combating discrimination by giving the U.S. Attorney General the power to file discrimination suits, expanding the mandate of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, and establishing the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to review employment discrimination complaints.
Before the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, "Jim Crow" laws, or legalized racial segregation, characterized much of the South. In many states, Jim Crow laws relegated African Americans to the backs of buses and to separate drinking fountains, restrooms, and dining areas.
Civil Rights 101
Civil Rights 101 addresses the history of many civil rights issues that we face today.
Voices of Civil Rights
The exhibition Voices of Civil Rights documents events during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. This exhibition draws from the thousands of personal stories, oral histories, and photographs collected by the "Voices of Civil Rights" project, a collaborative effort of AARP, The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, and the Library of Congress, and marks the arrival of these materials in the Library's collection
Civil Rights Book Club
Each month, we will feature five books representing the diversity of the contemporary social justice landscape.
In The News
Recent news clips on this issue.